- 1 Native Writing Techniques of Africa
- 1.1 SCRIPTS ARE CULTURE
- 1.2 HISTORY OF SCRIPTS
- 1.3 ORAL V. SCRIPTS
- 1.4 GE’EZ (Ethiopia | Eritrea)
- 1.5 Ge’ez Syllabary
- 1.6 OROMO ISSUE
- 1.7 MEDU NETER
- 1.8 Neter Syllabary
- 1.9 Meroitic (Extinct Sudan)
- 1.10 Nubian (Extinct Sudan)
- 1.11 Vai (Liberia)
- 1.12 A-ka-u-ku (Cameroon)
- 1.13 Nsibidi (Nigeria)
- 1.14 OSMANYA
- 1.15 N’Ko alphabet
- 1.16 Mwangwego (Malawi)
- 1.17 Zaghawa (Darfur)
Native Writing Techniques of Africa
Historic Africa had a predominantly, but not solely, oral tradition. However Ethiopia for over a 1000 of years has used, and nonetheless makes use of a Ge’ez based mostly native script. And aside from Ajami (Arabic script for African languages), West Africa had Vai and Nsibidi. To not mention the apparent Nile-Valley (Historic Egyptian and Nubian) scripts at the start of civilization.
SCRIPTS ARE CULTURE
A script just isn’t only a know-how for writing the spoken phrase, Additionally it is a cultural symbol of a individuals and their id. The mere signal of Arabic script carries the facility of Islam and the Arab/Muslim individuals. Every time we see Amharic written we see the may of Ethiopian tradition. A script is highly effective political image used everywhere in the world to point out nationwide id. It isn’t unintentional, or novelty that Hebrew was reinstated, from obsoleteness, when Israel was created in 1948.
Tifinaɣ (a Berber script) utilized by some Berber peoples, notably the Tuareg, to put in writing their languages. A contemporary derivate of the normal script, referred to as Neo-Tifinagh, was launched in the 20th century. Despite restricted usage it typically serves to say a Berber id politically and symbolically, as distinct from an Arabized id.
Not only was Hebrew a totally useful half of unifying Jews, it was also a political image of their claim of a connection to Historic Israel. There isn’t any doubt the each time we see Japanese’s we see Japanese’s culture, every time we see Chinese we should assume in terms of the tradition, politics and id of the Chinese language. And by this similar logic each time we see Latin we will virtually map the historical past of conquered individuals and the politics of Western civilization on the world. There is a direct relationship (whereas not unique) to the presence of Latin and the facility of Western imposition. (Turkey, most of Africa, all of Europe, and so on).
HISTORY OF SCRIPTS
A script is a comparatively trendy know-how for communication , it’s a visible mark on a flat surface which carries info. But not all scripts are equal at representing full speech (syntax, lexicon, and so on). Regardless of the fashionable variety of scripts there are solely four progenitors (unbiased improvement) for every script written at the moment: Egypt (3500 B.C.E.), Historic Iraq/Iran (3500 B.C.E.), China, and Mesoamerica. Each other script is a blueprint of these 4 scripts, or not directly inspired by them (diffusion) (e.g. Cherokee). Europe has by no means produced any native script, each script is derivatives—even Historic Greek. The history of the alphabet began in historic Egypt. By the 27th century BC Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are referred to as uniliterals. The numerology (zero,1,2,3,4,5) of trendy Western scripts all comes from Arabic numerals. We frequently consider a lot of civilization was a European creation, however Europe, like most of the world, borrowed from the uncommon genius of 4 script inventors, identical to it borrowed domestication, and faith.
Probably the most primary type of first scripts have been pictographic. Although a couple of pictographic or ideographic scripts exist right now, there isn’t a single option to read them, because there isn’t a one-to-one correspondence between symbol and language. Hieroglyphic have been commonly considered ideographic earlier than they have been translated, and to today Chinese language is usually erroneously stated to be ideographic. In some instances of ideographic scripts, solely the writer of a textual content can read it with any certainty, and it might be stated that they are interpreted moderately than read. True scripts symbolize the complete body of potential speech, they will utterly document the range of ideas spoken. Every thought or concept, that can be spoken might be written in Amharic, Arabic, English, and so on. It additionally allows for brand spanking new words to be written because of the phonetic representation.
Reading and writing, are usually not innate for people, and it’s potential for humans to want (when given an opportunity) options to scripts. That is why television,☺feelings(pictographic), are so common. And with the rise of social media, abbreviations reminiscent of LMAO, show that script evolution might reverse itself. Also if we take a look at words for a very long time they develop into meaningless, as a result of in reality they’re arbitrary, in contrast to pictograms. Subsequently most of what we learn shouldn’t be truly reading of the phonemes, but acknowledged of the text from earlier encounters (we recognize greater than we read). This is the reason unfamiliar phrases, even if easy, trigger us to pause and re-read. (Shahadah – very straightforward Sha Ha Dah, yet if new and unfamiliar it causes most literate individuals to slow down or even utterly misinterpret).
Within the historical past of writing symbols proceeded from ideographic (similar to an icon of a bull’s head in an inventory stock, denoting that the following numeral refers to go of cattle) to logographic (an icon of a bull denoting the Semitic word ʾālep “ox”), to phonetic (the bull’s head used as a logo in rebus writing, indicating the glottal cease originally of the phrase for “ox”, specifically, the letter aleph).
An orthography is a standardized system for utilizing a specific writing script to write down a specific language. It consists of rules of spelling, and can also concern other parts of the written language comparable to punctuation and capitalization. In the case of Africa particular adoptions are needed to accurately characterize each particular African language. In South Africa the Xhosa languages wants, as a result of it has none of its own, Latin symbolic illustration for the language clicks (!X and so forth). This is true for Hausa written in Arabic and Latin based mostly scripts. As a result of Arabic historically has no “P” the پ is created for languages which have that sound, resembling Urdu. A language corresponding to Amharic which is genetically from Ge’ez does not require these modifications as its is written in its distinctive script. It is believed that the altering of letters to go well with the language was part of the method of indigenization that created distinctive scripts all through the world.
* People have been on Earth for 100,000 years bu only in the final 6000 years has writing been invented, and solely within the 20th century has this spread to majority of the Earth. But music has been around for over 42,000 years.
ORAL V. SCRIPTS
Oral tradition accounted for most of Africa, and the world. The high charges of literacy we see right now are a singular product of our trendy world and the byproduct of European, Arab and Chinese conquest. Traditionally, even in literate societies, reminiscent of Western Europe, literacy was confided to the elites. Oral traditions have historically been thought-about unsophisticated and totally ridiculed. And while they’ve some crucial developmental potential issues, oral tradition promotes a larger dependency on the utilization of memory, story telling and other socially binding traditions. But literate individuals have far higher neuro-connection between the 2 half of their mind]and have displayed quite a few advantages over non-literate individuals.  Unfortunately oral custom, beyond this, can’t compete. And in most international encounters it is the societies with scripts than conquer the societies without.
Very few giant nations have risen without having to depend on scripts. Writing is subsequently a proximate think about explaining radical disparity between numerous societies.
Writing permits bureaucracies, which permits complicated centralized political administrations, financial change, advanced scholarship, correct historical past holding, fast transmission of info for warfare and navigation, report maintaining, a repository of traditions might be recorded for eternity with it. The range at which this info travels, and the frequency through which it can be reproduced is limitless in contrast with the oral societies. And for this reason Europe can recount 1000 years of detailed historical past and study from it, yet little or no is understood concerning the historical past of Sub equatorial Africa. So in oral cultures it solely takes 1 missing era for hundreds of years of historical past to be misplaced to time. Scripts, once deciphered, like Historic Egypt, carry a individuals’s reminiscences for eternity.
Some who find reactionary consolation with romance discover this analysis “Eurocentric”, however you can’t significantly build modernity with no written custom. It something crucial for robust historic custom, and most of the advances in drugs, scholarship, without end. There isn’t any approach oral traditions examine and may compete. And it was never a European invention; as both Sumeria and Historic Egypt (KMT) have been the primary to create literate empires and set the tone for civilization. And that is why all the most important facilities in Historic Africa, Aksum, KMT, Nubia, Songhai, Mali, Almoravid, and so on, had a written custom. It’s part and parcel of complicated societies.
GE’EZ (Ethiopia | Eritrea)
Ge’ez script is the one native African script in full usage as at a national and everyday degree. Ge’ez (ግዕዝ Gəʿəz), is a script used as an abugida (syllable alphabet) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea however originated in anabjad (consonant-only alphabet) used to put in writing Ge’ez, now the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Church. In Amharic and Tigrinya the script is usually referred to as fidäl (ፊደል), which suggests “script” or “alphabet”. The Ge’ez script has been tailored to write down different, principally Semitic, languages, akin to Amharic in Ethiopia and Tigrinya in Eritrea and Ethiopia. It’s also used for Sebatbeit, Me’en, and most other languages of Ethiopia. In Eritrea it’s used for Tigre, and it has traditionally been used for Blin, a Cushitic language.
Tigre, spoken in western and northern Eritrea , is taken into account to resemble Ge’ez extra so than do the other by-product languages. Some other languages in the Horn of Africa, corresponding to Oromo, was written using Ge’ez however have migrated to cumbersome Latin-based orthographies.
Tigre, spoken in western and northern Eritrea , is taken into account to resemble Ge’ez extra so than do the other by-product languages. Another languages within the Horn of Africa, similar to Oromo, was written using Ge’ez but have migrated to cumbersome Latin-based orthographies.
The earliest inscriptions of Ethio-Semitic in Ethiopia and Eritrea date to the 9th century BC in Epigraphic South Arabian (ESA), an Abjad shared with modern kingdoms in South Arabia. After the 7th and 6th centuries BC, nevertheless, variants of the script arose, evolving in the path of the Ge’ez abugida (a writing system that can also be referred to as an alphasyllabary). This evolution might be seen most clearly in evidence from inscriptions (primarily graffiti on rocks and caves) in Tigray area in northern Ethiopia and the former province of Akkele Guzay in Eritrea. By the primary centuries AD, what known as “Old Ethiopic” or the “Old Ge’ez alphabet” arose, an abjad (like Arabic and Hebrew with no vowels) written left-to-right (as opposed to boustrophedon like ESA) with letters principally equivalent to the first-order types of the fashionable vocalized alphabet (e.g. “k” in the type of “kä”). In the Ge’ez abugida (or ‘fidel’), the base type of the letter (also called ‘fidel’) could also be altered. For instance, ሀ hä [hə] (base type), ሁ hu (with a right-side diacritic that doesn’t alter the letter), ሂ hi (with a subdiacritic that compresses the consonant, so it’s the similar peak), ህ hə [hɨ] or [h] (where the letter is modified with a kink in the left arm).
Till the 1970s, Afaan Oromo was written with both the Ge’ez script or the Latin alphabet Then through the early 1970s, the Oromo Liberation Entrance (OLF) selected the Latin alphabet as the official alphabet to put in writing Afaan Oromo. Between 1974 and 1991 underneath the Mengistu regime the writing of Afaan Oromo in any script was forbidden, though restricted utilization of the Ge’ez script was allowed. On 3rd November 1991 the OLF convened a meeting of over 1,000 Oromo intellectuals to determine which alphabet to use to put in writing Afaan Ormo. After a many hours of debate, they determined unanimously to undertake the Latin alphabet. Unfortunately many Ormo have stopped using the indigenous African Ge’ez script after 1991 and commenced formally writing Oromoia in a Latin format referred to as referred to as Qubee.
Words are subsequently excessively long to accommodate for the inadequacies of Latin.
It is speculated that the motivation for the change was to create a particular cultural determine from the “semitic” groups who’ve historically suppressed their tradition. How a European script could possibly be used over a associated African script speaks to the risks of so-called liberation when those liberating forces are ignorant of the broader points.
Egyptian hieroglyphs ( Medu Neter-“tongue of God” ) have been a formal writing system utilized by the traditional Egyptians that mixed logographic and alphabetic parts. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for spiritual literature on papyrus and wood. Much less formal variations of the script, referred to as hieratic and demotic, are technically not hieroglyphs. Numerous scholars consider that Egyptian hieroglyphs either was an unique middle of writing (unbiased improvement of writing in Egypt), or a weaker argument holds a subtle blueprint of Historic Sumerian. Each Sumaria and Historic Egyptian got here into existence round around the similar time. (4000 – 3500 BCE).
Hieroglyphs emerged from the preliterate inventive traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from ca. 4000 BCE resemble hieroglyphic writing. For a few years the earliest recognized hieroglyphic inscription was the Narmer Palette, discovered throughout excavations at Hierakonpolis (trendy Kawm al-Ahmar) in the 1890s, which has been dated to ca. 3200 BCE. In the period of the Previous Kingdom, the Center Kingdom and the New Kingdom, about 800 hieroglyphs existed. By the Greco-Roman interval, they numbered more than 5,000.
The phrase Medu Neter (MDW W NTR) actually means “tongue of God” or extra loosely, “God’s words.” The English phrase, “hieroglyphs,” is derived from the Greek word, “hieroglyphikos,” which suggests “sacred engraving,” just like the essential which means of “Medu Neter.” This script is an elaborate system of standardized pictographs that characterize both meanings and consonal sounds. The oldest recognized proof for this writing system come from pre-dynastic pottery at Gerzeh (c. 4000 – 3500 BC; “Gerzean culture”), which is situated about 100 miles south of Ha Ka Ptah (Giza), and from inscriptions discovered at Gebel Sheikh Suleiman (Wadi Halfa; 4000 – 3500 BC; “Nubian A-Group culture”) in so-called “Nubia.” The subsequent oldest type of Medu Neter dates between 3300 and 3200 BC and found in Abdu (tomb of the so-called “Scorpion” suten in Abydos) on clay tablets that recorded oil and linen deliveries. Through the so-called “dynastic period” (3100 BC – 500 AD), Medu Neter was used on the oldest of all historic texts, the “Narmer Palette” (3100 BC), then extensively used in the metaphysical/religious “Pyramid texts” (2400 – 2200 BC), coffin texts (2200-2000 BC), and the scientific, religious and administrative papyri (1825-600 BC).
Since vowels weren’t often written, two indicators could possibly be pronounced in a variety of alternative ways. For example, (ws) might sound like was, wes, ews, awsa, and so on. The best way that’s usually used (based on the ‘Egyptian Grammar’ ebook), is to make use of an e, except where the glottal cease () and the guttural sound () occur; these translate to a.
However keep in mind – it is unknown how the phrases have been truly stated – we don’t know where the vowels have been placed!
Biliteral and triliteral words are written, apart from when they are close to equally pronounced uniliterals. For example, isconsonantal y-mn, not consonantal y-mn-n.
and are consonant signs, however the sounds of these consonants are near the vowels i and u. These are often known as semi-vowels.*
If is used firstly of a word, it is pronounced as y otherwise it is pronounced i. As it is just discovered at the end of a phrase and is pronounced as y.
and are often known as weak consonants. They have been typically changed or omitted – typically, they have been replaced by .
* Notice, plainly and are also translated as an a, nowadays. Eg. Amen-Ra, quite than Imen-Ra!
Absence of the Article
Middle Egyptian didn’t have an equivalent of the English article of their writings. For instance, (identify) might be ‘the name’, ‘a name’, or just merely ‘name’! The Egyptian equivalent of ‘a’ and ‘the’ came afterward in Center Egyptian, however was really only used often in Late Egyptian writing.
Meroitic (Extinct Sudan)
The Meroitic script is an alphabetic script initially derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, used to put in writing the Meroitic language of the Kingdom of Meroë in Sudan. It was developed within the Napatan Interval (about 700–300 BCE), and first seems in the 2nd century BCE. For a time, it was additionally probably used to put in writing the Nubian language of the successor Nubian kingdoms. Its use was described by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (c. 50 BC). If the Meroitic alphabet did continue in use by the Nubian kingdoms that succeeded the Kingdom of Meroë, it was changed by the Coptic alphabet with the introduction of Christianity to Nubia in the sixth century CE. The Nubian type of the Coptic alphabet retained three Meroitic letters.
Nubian (Extinct Sudan)
The Meroitic script is an alphabetic script originally derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, used to put in writing the Meroitic language of the Kingdom of Meroë in Sudan. It was developed in the Napatan Interval (about 700–300 BCE), and first appears within the 2nd century BCE. For a time, it was additionally probably used to write down the Nubian language of the successor Nubian kingdoms. Its use was described by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (c. 50 BC). If the Meroitic alphabet did proceed in use by the Nubian kingdoms that succeeded the Kingdom of Meroë, it was changed by the Coptic alphabet with the introduction of Christianity to Nubia in the sixth century CE. The Nubian type of the Coptic alphabet retained three Meroitic letters.
The Vai syllabary is a syllabic writing system devised for the Vai language by Momolu Duwalu Bukele of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia. Vai, like Amharic, is written Left-Right. From 1830s – present it is used in Liberia, especilly amongst Vai audio system. The syllabary proved in style with the Vai and by the top of the 19th century most of them have been using it. In 1962 the Standardization Committee at the University of Liberia standardized the syllabary. A Vai model of the New Testomony within the Vai script appeared in 2003.Notable options Sort of writing system: syllabary Course of writing: left to proper in horizontal strains Each symbol represents a consonant plus a vowel Used to put in writing Vai (ꕙꔤ), a member of Mande group of Niger-Congo languages spoken by about 104,000 individuals in Liberia, and by about 15,500 individuals in Sierra Leone.
A-ka-u-ku is a script invented by King Ibrahim Njoya, the 17th king of the Bamum of West Cameroon, in 1896. It’s classed within the Benue-Congo language group, the most important branch of the Niger-Congo language household. It was made with the intention to protect and transmit the historical past of his individuals, as again then the one technique of transmission was oral. Ibrahim realised the inherent danger ofaccidental or deliberate, and thus during his reign ensured all ranges of his government and educational establishments discovered and taught this script. Named after its first four letters, A-ka-u-ku stands as relatively trendy proof that “Africa has always been an illiterate continent” is untrue.
Nevertheless, as a consequence of tensions between the French authorities and Ibrahim Njoya leading to his subsequent exile, it’s not normally use and most Bamum have forgotten it. His grandson, present sultan of Cameroon Ibrahim Mbombo Njoya, has since reworked his palace into a faculty to re-teach the Bamum this script. The sultan initiated The Bamum Scripts and Archives Venture in 2005 to convey it back from the brink of extinction 
Symbols and ideograms are used to depict syllables, making it a syllabary fairly than an alphabet (alphabets use characters that symbolise consonants and vowels individually. Syllabaries’ characters symbolise syllables, through which consonants and vowels are often conjoined) . When he first developed it Ibrahim’s officers helped him to simplify it because it had 465 characters! In its finalised type, although, it had a way more manageable 70 characters and 10 numerals. Identical to the English alphabet it’s read from left to right .
(observe: A-ka-u-ku is usually confused with Shümom, a man-made spoken language also of Ibrahim Njoya’s manufacture which came after the script. That is, maybe sarcastically, in far more widespread utilization than A-ka-u-ku).
Nsibidis is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now South Japanese Nigeria that’s ideographic (a graphic image that represents an concept or concept), though there have been options that it consists of logographic parts (. The symbols are no less than several centuries previous: Early types appeared on excavated pottery in addition to what are most probably ceramic stools and headrests from the Calabar region, courting between 400 and 1400 CE. Nsibidi’s origin is usually attributed to the Ekoi individuals of Southern Nigeria. Nsibidi (also called nsibiri, nchibiddi or nchibiddy) is a system of symbols indigenous to what’s now southeastern Nigeria that’s apparently ideographic, although there have been recommendations that it consists of logographicelements.
The symbols are at the very least a number of centuries previous: Early types appeared on excavated pottery from the Calabarregion courting between 400 and 1400 CE. Nsibidi’s origin is usually attributed to the Ekoi individuals of southern Nigeria. Alternatively J. Okay. Macgregor claimed in 1909 that it’s traditionally stated to have come from the Uguakima, Ebe or Uyanga tribes of the Igbo individuals, which legend says have been taught the script by baboons, although one writer believes Macgregor had been misled by his informants.
There are hundreds of nsibidi symbols, of which over 500 have been recorded. They have been as soon as taught in a faculty to youngsters. Many of the indicators cope with amorous affairs; people who cope with warfare and the sacred are stored secret. Nsibidi is used on wall designs, calabashes, metals (reminiscent of bronze), leaves, swords, and tattoos. It’s primarily utilized by theEkpe leopard secret society (also called Ngbe or Egbo), which is found throughout Cross River among the many Ekoi, Efik, Igbo individuals, and associated peoples. Outdoors information of nsibidi came in 1904 when T.D. Maxwell observed the symbols.Before the British colonisation of the world, nsibidi was divided into a sacred version and a public, extra ornamental version which might be utilized by ladies. Elements of colonisation akin to Western schooling and Christian doctrine drastically decreased the number of nsibidi-literate individuals, leaving the key society members as some of the last literate in the symbols.Nsibidi was and continues to be a way of transmitting Ekpe symbolism. Nsibidi was transported to Cuba and Haiti by way of the Atlantic slave commerce, the place it developed into the anaforuana and veve symbols.
Nsibidi has a wide vocabulary of indicators often imprinted on calabashes, brass ware, textiles, wood sculptures, masquerade costumes, buildings and on human pores and skin. Nsibidi has been described as a “fluid system” of communication consisting of a whole lot of abstract and pictographic indicators. Nsibidi was described in the colonial era by P.A. Talbot as a “a kind of primitive secret writing”, Talbot defined that nsibidi was used for messages “cut or painted on split palm stems”. J.Okay. Macgregor’s view was that “The use of nsibidi is that of ordinary writing. I have in my possession a copy of the record of a court case from a town of Enion [Enyong] taken down in it, and every detail … is most graphically described”. Nsibidi crossed ethnic strains and was a uniting factor amongst ethnic groups within the Cross River area.
The origin of nsibidi is most commonly attributed to the Ejagham individuals of the northern Cross River region, principally because colonial directors discovered the most important and most numerous nsibidi amongst them. Nsibidi spread throughout the region over time and combined with other cultures and art varieties such because the Igbo uli graphic design.
Osmanya, also referred to as Cismaanya and much soomaali, is a Somali script invented between 1920 and 1922 by a person named Osman Yusuf Kenadid, brother of the Sultan of Hobyo and a founding member of the Somali Youth League. Osmanya’s objective was to transcribe the Somali spoken language (referred to as Af-Soomaali), and though it turned pretty extensively used it confronted heavy competitors from the Latin-based script and Arabic. Kenadid invented this script in response to a national marketing campaign calling for a standardized orthography for the Somali language. Such a motion was vital because the Somali individuals’s historic writing system had lengthy since been misplaced.
Osmanya came sufficiently extensively accepted to exchange Sheikh Uways’s Arabic-based script. Within the native faculties of his Sultanate, news of the Osmanya script unfold shortly – so shortly the Italian authorities soon came upon and imprisoned Kenadid in Mogadishu. They feared he might arouse nationalistic uprisings. Upon his arrest, Somalia’s requires a standardized script have been silenced for the subsequent 25 years.
After the top of WW2 the Somali individuals have been present process growing nationalist sentiments which, together with the invention of the Somali Youth League, re-ignited curiosity in Osmanya and led to the independence of Somalia from Italian & British rule. Nevertheless within the 1960s Shire Jama Ahmed, a Somali linguist, proposed a Latin-based script and introduced it before the Somali Language Committee. He competed towards 17 different prospective orthographies (together with Osmanya, Arabic & some Ge’ez-like scripts) to have his Latin-based script develop into the nationwide orthography. Regardless of this, the early 1970s noticed Osmanya getting used for private correspondence and bookkeeping functions amongst the Somali populace.
Osmanya as typewriters and other machines had been designed to accommodate its use.
Nevertheless, in 1972 Mohamed Siad Barre, President at the time, unilaterally elected for Shire’s script to turn out to be the official standardized script of Af-Soomaali and then launched a literacy campaign to make sure it turned the only one in use. Osmanya thus largely fell into disuse. Identical to English, Osmanya is written from left to right in horizontal rows. The names of the letters are very similar to these of Arabic letters, however they appear utterly totally different.
Just like Arabic, the letters waw & ya (equivalent to w & y) are used as elongated types of the vowels u & i. Identical to most ‘sub-Saharan’ African languages Af-Soomaali is a tonal language, which means tone/ pitch is used to differentiate between words and totally different grammatical makes use of akin to gender, case & number. Although Osmanya doesn’t mark the four tones in writing, it easily encompasses all the totally different sounds of Af-Soomaali.
N’Ko is each a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949 as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the identify of the literary language itself written within the script. The time period N’Ko means I say in all Manding languages. The script has a couple of similarities to the Arabic script, notably its path (right-to-left) and the related letters. It obligatorily marks each tone and vowels
The Mwangwego alphabet is an abugida developed for Malawian languages by Nolence Mwangwego. The thought for a Malawian script came on November 10, 1977, in Paris, when he found that there are various writing techniques on the earth, and thought that words which means “to write” in Malawian languages have been evidence that they once had a script of their own
The Zaghawa or Beria alphabet, Beria Giray Erfe (‘Zaghawa Writing Marks’), is an indigenous alphabetic script proposed for the Zaghawa aka Beria language of Darfur and Chad.
In the 1950s, a Sudanese Zaghawa schoolteacher named Adam Tajir created an alphabet for the Zaghawa language that was based mostly on the clan brands used for livestock, particularly camels. Typically referred to as the camel alphabet, he copied the stock of the Arabic script, so the system was not ideally suited for Zaghawa.